Contrasting the birthing practices of upper-class and indigenous women, this ethnography of the alternative birth movement in Mexico offers new understandings of female empowerment, citizenship, and the commodification of indigenous culture.
Recent anthropological scholarship on “new midwifery” centers on how professional midwives in various countries are helping women reconnect with “nature,” teaching them to trust in their bodies, respecting women’s “choices,” and fighting for women’s right to birth as naturally as possible. In No Alternative, Rosalynn A. Vega uses ethnographic accounts of natural birth practices in Mexico to complicate these narratives about new midwifery and illuminate larger questions of female empowerment, citizenship, and the commodification of indigenous culture, by showing how alternative birth actually reinscribes traditional racial and gender hierarchies.
Vega contrasts the vastly different birthing experiences of upper-class and indigenous Mexican women. Upper-class women often travel to birthing centers to be delivered by professional midwives whose methods are adopted from and represented as indigenous culture, while indigenous women from those same cultures are often forced by lack of resources to use government hospitals regardless of their preferred birthing method. Vega demonstrates that women’s empowerment, having a “choice,” is a privilege of those capable of paying for private medical services—albeit a dubious privilege, as it puts the burden of correctly producing future members of society on women’s shoulders. Vega’s research thus also reveals the limits of citizenship in a neoliberal world, as indigeneity becomes an object of consumption within a transnational racialized economy.
- List of Illustrations
- 1. Commodifying Indigeneity: Politics of Representation
- 2. Humanized Birth: Unforeseen Politics of Parenting
- 3. Intersectionality: A Contextual and Dialogical Framework
- 4. A Cartography of “Race” and Obstetric Violence
- 5. (Ethno)Medical (Im)Mobilities
- Conclusion: Destination Birth—Time and Space Travel
"No Alternative is a penetrating analysis of consequences of interactions between globalization processes and contemporary nation-states. Set in Mexico, Vega brilliantly contrasts prenatal care/midwifery practices at the society’s two socioeconomic extremes: 'traditional' (empirical) midwives and licensed 'professional' midwife practitioners of transnational 'humanized' birth.
Drawing on her extensive ethnographic experience, Vega argues that pregnancy is a primary 'site of racialization,' by which the intersectional processes that define Mexico’s parameters for inclusion and exclusion are laid bare. No Alternative . . . also draws on Mexico’s humanized-birth movement to interrogate larger issues, including commodification of cultures, unintended effects of feminism, and the limits of citizenship imposed by neoliberal regimes.
Vega’s writing is exquisite, compelling, and accessible. Highly recommended for students, researchers, and birth practitioners."
Carole Browner, editor of Reproduction, Globalization, and the State: New Theoretical and Ethnographic Perspectives