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Endangered and Threatened Animals of Florida and Their Habitats

Endangered and Threatened Animals of Florida and Their Habitats

This fully illustrated book is a comprehensive, yet convenient and easy-to-understand guide to Florida’s endangered and threatened animals and the habitats that support them.

Series: Corrie Herring Hooks Endowment

April 2004
This book is out of print and no longer available.
381 pages | 5 3/4 x 8 1/4 | 65 color and 43 b&w illlus. |

A biological crossroads where temperate gives way to tropical and east blends into west, Florida has over twenty-five primary habitat types, several of which are unique to the state. Within these richly varied natural communities lives an astonishing abundance of animals and plants, making Florida one of the United States' most biologically diverse regions. At the same time, sadly, Florida is also one of the country's most ecologically imperiled regions, second only to California in the number of its animals and plants that have been federally designated as endangered or threatened.

This fully illustrated book is a comprehensive, yet convenient and easy-to-understand guide to Florida's endangered and threatened animals and the habitats that support them. Chris Scott covers all 71 species, subspecies, or populations of mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, crustaceans, insects, corals, and mollusks. His species accounts describe each animal's listed status, identifying characteristics, historical and current distribution, biology, current threats, and conservation efforts. To make the crucial link between animals and their habitats, Scott also includes extensive discussions of Florida's natural regions; human impacts on the environment, including habitat destruction, pollution, and the introduction of invasive, nonnative species; and ongoing efforts to conserve and restore native plant and animal communities. With this wealth of information available in no other single volume, everyone who cares about the natural environment can help preserve one of America's biological treasurehouses.

  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter One. Listed Species: What They Are Up Against
  • Chapter Two. Biological Pollution: Invasive Exotics in Florida
  • Chapter Three. Saving Florida's Endangered Species: A Race Against the Clock
  • Chapter Four. Florida's Habitats
    • Florida Scrub Ecosystems
    • High Pine Communities
    • Pine Flatwoods and Dry Prairie Habitats
    • Temperate Hardwood Communities
    • South Florida Rockland Habitats
    • Coastal Strand Habitats
    • Subterranean Habitats
    • Freshwater Swamps and Related Communities
    • Lakes, Rivers, Streams, Springs, and Related Ecosystems
    • Freshwater and Saltwater Marsh Communities
    • Mangrove Communities
    • Coral Reefs and Related Marine Ecosystems
  • Species Accounts
    • Mammals
      • Florida Mastiff Bat (Eumops glaucinus floridanus)
      • Endangered Bats of the Panhandle
        • Gray Bat (Myotis grisescens)
        • Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalis)
      • Florida Panther (Puma concolor coryi)
      • Florida Black Bear (Ursus americanus floridanus)
      • Everglades Mink (Mustela vison evergladensis)
      • Key Deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium)
      • Lower Keys Marsh Rabbit (Sylvilagus palustris hefueri)
      • Big Cypress Fox Squirrel (Sciurus niger avicennia)
      • Key Largo Wood Rat (Neotoma floridana smalli)
      • Key Largo Cotton Mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus allapaticola)
      • Beach Mice (Peromyscus polionotus)
      • Silver Rice Rat (Oryzomys argentatus)
      • Florida Salt Marsh Vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus dukecampbelli)
      • Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris)
    • Birds
      • Least Tern (Sterna antillarum antillarum)
      • Caribbean Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii dougallii)
      • Southeastern Snowy Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus tenuirostris)
      • Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus)
      • Wood Stork (Mycteria americana)
      • Whooping Crane (Grus americana)
      • Florida Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pratensis)
      • Everglades Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus)
      • Southern Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus leucocephalus)
      • Audubon's Crested Caracara (Caracara cheriway audubonii)
      • Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus)
      • Southeastern American Kestrel (Falco sparverius paulus)
      • White-crowned Pigeon (Columba leucocephala)
      • Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis principalis)
      • Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis)
      • Florida Scrub-jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens)
      • Kirtland's Warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii)
      • Bachman's Warbler (Vermivora bachmanii)
      • Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis)
      • Florida Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum floridanus)
    • Reptiles
      • American Crocodile (Crocodylus acutus)
      • American Alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)
      • Sea Turtles
      • Atlantic Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas mydas)
      • Atlantic Hawksbill Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata imbricata)
      • Atlantic Ridley Turtle (Lepidochelys kempi)
      • Atlantic Loggerhead Turtle (Caretta caretta caretta)
      • Atlantic Leatherback Turtle (Dermochelys coriacea coriacea)
      • Bluetail Mole Skink (Eumeces egregius lividus)
      • Sand Skink (Neoseps reynoldsi)
      • Atlantic Salt Marsh Snake (Nerodia clarki taeniata)
      • Key Ring-necked Snake (Diadophis punctatus acricus)
      • Eastern Indigo Snake (Drymarchon corais couperi)
      • Short-tailed Snake (Stilosoma extenuatum)
      • Rimrock Crowned Snake (Tantilla oolitica)
      • Lower Keys Reptiles
      • Peninsula Ribbon Snake (Thamnophis sauritus sackeni)
      • Florida Brown Snake (Storeria dekayi victa)
      • Striped Mud Turtle (Kinosternon bauri)
    • Fishes
      • Shortnose Sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum)
      • Gulf Sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) and Atlantic Sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus)
      • Crystal Darter (Crystallaria asprella)
      • Okaloosa Darter (Etheostoma okaloosae)
      • Blackmouth Shiner (Notropis melanostomus)
      • Key Silverside (Menidia conchorum)
    • Crustacean
      • Squirrel Chimney Cave Shrimp (Palaemonetes cummingi)
    • Insect
      • Schaus' Swallowtail Butterfly (Papilio aristodemus ponceanus)
    • Coral
      • Pillar Coral (Dendrogyra cylindrus)
    • Mollusk
      • Stock Island Tree Snail (Orthalicus reses reses)
  • Appendix. State Species of Special Concern, Federal Candidate Species, and Federal Species of Management Concern
  • Glossary
  • Bibliography
  • Index

Chris Scott is a federal law enforcement officer, herpetologist, wildlife researcher, and professional nature photographer. A former Floridian, he now lives in the western United States.


This book is intended to provide the reader with detailed, current, factual information on each of Florida's 67 animal species, subspecies, or populations designated as endangered or threatened by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission or the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Descriptions of Florida's ecosystems (which these and every other native animal and plant depend on) and their current state are also included. Wherever possible, I have tried to accentuate the correlation between protection of habitats and protection of wildlife; it cannot be overemphasized.


Construction of the book entailed two distinct duties. The first was research and the actual writing of the text, which required hundreds of hours in front of the computer trying to avoid carpal tunnel syndrome while still trying to complete my self-imposed quota for the week. The second was photographing the fascinating assemblage of creatures discussed in the text, which often required trips of two or three days to some of the country's most unusual and beautiful locations. I much preferred the photography to the writing. The field trips were always exciting, whether or not the species sought was found, and provided a number of unusual and sometimes comical experiences. One such experience involved an attempt by myself and my son Matthew to photograph the threatened Atlantic salt marsh snake in the wild. Locating this species at any time other than low tide is extremely unlikely; however, after arriving at the site just after dark and discovering the tide to be just as high as it could possibly get, we decided to give it a shot. After several hours of wading and sinking chest-high in muddy water, or watery mud, we were still a quarter-mile and several hundred mosquito bites away from dry land, and then our flashlight died. If the Guinness Book of World Records had a category for the world's muddiest father and son, we would have won hands down. The beautiful photograph of the Atlantic salt marsh snake that appears in this book was taken by Barry Mansell, and it serves as testimony to the failure of our exhaustive search for the animal that October night.


Then there was the caterpillar incident. Over the years I have been bitten, stung, and envenomated by a variety of America's critters including rattlesnakes, scorpions, and even small alligators, and it has generally been my fault. While I was searching for scrub-jays and sand skinks in Ocala National Forest, again with my son, one cute, fuzzy little puss caterpillar somehow managed to fall down my shirt. Reacting to a sudden itching sensation on my chest, I rubbed the venomous quills of this unseen aggressor into my epidermis, which is exactly what you don't want to do. For the next several hours I felt as if someone had inflated the glands under my arm with about 200 psi of air.


The last incident I'll mention is one I now consider humorous but a bit embarrassing. On one of my many trips to the Florida Keys to photograph species for this book, I happened on an amazingly tolerant peregrine falcon who permitted my very close approach. When I first spotted the bird--the fastest of all God's creatures, perched above a mangrove forest and keenly scanning its surroundings for an unsuspecting blue-winged teal or other feathered quarry, I quickly grabbed my camera and began my approach on foot. That euphoria stole over me, the feeling experienced by nature photographers when the rare opportunity for the perfect photograph of a prized animal presents itself in the wild. Stealthily approaching the falcon, I clicked off shots every few feet. The sun was at my back, increasing the probability of a once-in-alifetime peregrine shot. As this trusting, adult peregrine permitted me to approach within 20 feet with my 300-millimeter lens, I visualized, with certainty, the slides of the bird gracing the cover of Audubon or Wild Bird magazines. After 30 frames or so, I was more than satisfied when the stately falcon took flight toward a flock of descending willets on an adjacent mudflat. Only then did I realize that I had no film in my camera.


If you are considering writing an article or book about the outdoors, and you're considering doing your own photography for the piece, I can offer the following advice: First, you'll probably save a lot of money and time by simply buying the needed photographs and rights from established nature photographers, and you'll have much more time to devote to your manuscript. Second, disregard the previous statement and get out there yourself, get muddy, beware of the savage puss caterpillar, and experience or reexperience the subject matter you are writing about firsthand. Your finished product will be enhanced as a result. Just remember to put film in your camera.




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This book may also be available on the following library platforms; check with your local library:
3M Cloud Library/bibliotheca