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Graphic Memories of the Civil Rights Movement

Graphic Memories of the Civil Rights Movement
Reframing History in Comics

A study of five graphic novels or memoirs that have reshaped the narrative of civil rights in America—and an examination of the format’s power to allow readers to participate in the memory-making process.

Series: World Comics and Graphic Nonfiction Series

June 2019
Active (available)
256 pages | 6 x 9 | Hardcover has a printed case, no dust jacket |

The history of America’s civil rights movement is marked by narratives that we hear retold again and again. This has relegated many key figures and turning points to the margins, but graphic novels and graphic memoirs present an opportunity to push against the consensus and create a more complete history. Graphic Memories of the Civil Rights Movement showcases five vivid examples of this:

Ho Che Anderson's King (2005), which complicates the standard biography of Martin Luther King Jr.; Congressman John Lewis's three-volume memoir, March (2013–2016); Darkroom (2012), by Lila Quintero Weaver, in which the author recalls her Argentinian father’s participation in the movement and her childhood as an immigrant in the South; the bestseller The Silence of Our Friends, by Mark Long, Jim Demonakos, and Nate Powell (2012), set in Houston's Third Ward in 1967; and Howard Cruse's Stuck Rubber Baby (1995), whose protagonist is a closeted gay man involved in the movement.

In choosing these five works, Jorge Santos also explores how this medium allows readers to participate in collective memory making, and what the books reveal about the process by which history is (re)told, (re)produced, and (re)narrativized. Concluding the work is Santos’s interview with Ho Che Anderson.

  • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction. Graphic Memories in “Black and White”
  • Chapter 1. The Icon of the Once and Future King
  • Chapter 2. Bleeding Histories on the March
  • Chapter 3. On Photo-Graphic Narrative: “To Look—Really Look” into the Darkroom
  • Chapter 4. The Silence of Our Friends and Memories of Houston’s Civil Rights History
  • Chapter 5. Tropes, Transfer, Trauma: The Lynching Imagery of Stuck Rubber Baby
  • Epilogue. Cyclops Was Right: X-Lives Matter!
  • Appendix. A Conversation with Ho Che Anderson, Author-Artist of King
  • Notes
  • Works Cited
  • Index

Jorge J. Santos Jr.
Worcester, Massachusetts

Born to El Salvadorian and Ecuadorian immigrant parents, Santos is an assistant professor of multi-ethnic literature of the United States at the College of the Holy Cross. His work has appeared in MELUS, College Literature, and Image/Text. His first foray into the world of graphic narrative, "Movement through the Borderlands: Graphic Revisions in Pablo’s Inferno," was awarded the University of Connecticut Aetna Critical Writing Prize.


“An important and thoughtful work which has far-reaching impacts beyond the world of comics studies...Santos looks at five graphic novels and considers the X-Men series in an effort to look at how collective memory is constructed and the ways that comics can be particularly useful in retelling and re-contextualizing history.”
Smash Pages

“This is the first book to deal explicitly with issues of racial justice, history, and historical memory in non-superhero comic books (with a dash of X-Men thrown in at the end). It is intellectually and emotionally involving, immersing its audience in close readings and contemplation of strikingly beautiful and provocative art and asking them to ponder some of the most important moral and humanitarian issues of our time--and of all times.”
Marc DiPaolo, Southwestern Oklahoma State University, author of War, Politics and Superheroes: Ethics and Propaganda in Comics and Film

“Aimed at readers captivated by the visual nature of comics, this book is very adept at the critique and discussion of imagery and graphic aspects of the texts, rather than just the story or plotline. Jorge Santos’s work represents a great contribution to the adoption of graphic narratives as a critical tool for the assessment of historiography and media literacy.”
Héctor Fernández L'Hoeste, Georgia State University, coeditor of Redrawing the Nation: National Identity in Latin/o American Comics