This book explores visual portrayals of Blackness in Brazil to reveal the integral role of visual culture in crafting race and nation across Latin America.
In the early twentieth century, Brazil shifted from a nation intent on whitening its population to one billing itself as a racial democracy. Anadelia Romo shows that this shift centered in Salvador, Bahia, where throughout the 1950s, modernist artists and intellectuals forged critical alliances with Afro-Brazilian religious communities of Candomblé to promote their culture and their city. These efforts combined with a growing promotion of tourism to transform what had been one of the busiest slaving depots in the Americas into a popular tourist enclave celebrated for its rich Afro-Brazilian culture. Vibrant illustrations and texts by the likes of Jorge Amado, Pierre Verger, and others contributed to a distinctive iconography of the city, with Afro-Bahians at its center. But these optimistic visions of inclusion, Romo reveals, concealed deep racial inequalities. Illustrating how these visual archetypes laid the foundation for Salvador’s modern racial landscape, this book unveils the ways ethnic and racial populations have been both included and excluded not only in Brazil but in Latin America as a whole.
- Introduction: Race, Identity, and Visual Culture in the Americas
- Chapter 1. Precedents and Backdrops: Racial Types and Modern Ports
- Chapter 2. Colonial Churches and the Rise of the Quintessential Black City: Modernism, Travel, and the Pathbreaking Guide of Jorge Amado
- Chapter 3. Pierre Verger and the Construction of a Black Folk, 1946–1951
- Chapter 4. Festive Streets: Carybé and Bahian Modernism
- Chapter 5. “Human and Picturesque”: Consolidation in the Bahian Tourist Guides of the 1950s
- Chapter 6. All Roads Lead to Black Rome: How the Religion of “Secrets” Became a Tourist Attraction
"This is a beautifully written, carefully researched, and eminently readable book. Ana Romo takes an innovative approach to understanding the intertwined subjects of race and regional identity in Brazil through a focus on travel and tourist guides to Bahia. These guides provide the basis for a rich social history and visual-culture analysis through their words and images, and Romo's recognition of their value as illuminating historical records while also reckoning with their often-negative cultural and discursive influence is one of the book’s many strengths."
Tamara J. Walker, University at Toronto, author of Exquisite Slaves: Race, Clothing and Status in Colonial Lima