Analyzing international data regarding food production and social inequality, especially in the NAFTA region, this book convincingly argues that neoliberal regimes, not individuals, have created the global obesity epidemic.
Why are people getting fatter in the United States and beyond? Mainstream explanations argue that people simply eat too much “energy-dense” food while exercising too little. By swapping the chips and sodas for fruits and vegetables and exercising more, the problem would be solved. By contrast, The Neoliberal Diet argues that increased obesity does not result merely from individual food and lifestyle choices. Since the 1980s, the neoliberal turn in policy and practice has promoted trade liberalization and retrenchment of the welfare regime, along with continued agricultural subsidies in rich countries. Neoliberal regulation has enabled agribusiness multinationals to thrive by selling highly processed foods loaded with refined flour and sugars—a diet that originated in the United States—as well as meat. Drawing on extensive empirical data, Gerardo Otero identifies the socioeconomic and political forces that created this diet, which has been exported around the globe, often at the expense of people’s health.
Otero shows how state-level actions, particularly subsidies for big farms and agribusiness, have ensured the dominance of processed foods and made healthful fresh foods inaccessible to many. Comparing agrifood performance across several nations, including the NAFTA region, and correlating food access to class inequality, he convincingly demonstrates the structural character of food production and the effect of inequality on individual food choices. Resolving the global obesity crisis, Otero concludes, lies not in blaming individuals but in creating state-level programs to reduce inequality and make healthier food accessible to all.
- List of Tables and Figures
- Introduction: Obesity and the Neoliberal Diet
- Chapter 1. The Neoliberal Food Regime and Its Crisis: The Dynamic Factors
- Chapter 2. Neoregulation of Agricultural Biotechnology at the National and Suprastate Scales
- Chapter 3. Food and Inequality in the United States
- Chapter 4. Class Diets in the NAFTA Region: Divergence or Convergence?
- Chapter 5. NAFTA, Agriculture, and Work: Mexico’s Loss of Food and Labor Sovereignty
- Chapter 6. Globalizing the Neoliberal Diet: Food Security and Trade
- Chapter 7. Food Security, Obesity, and Inequality: Measuring the Risk of Exposure to the Neoliberal Diet
- Conclusion: What Is to Be Done?
"A closely argued sociological treatise...Otero draws on reams of data to demonstrate that neoliberal ideology—the belief that human welfare is best achieved through state-supported private enterprise—results in market-based agricultural systems that destroy subsistence farming, traditional diets, and health, while blaming the displaced victims for their own fate."
Marion Nestle, The Lancet
“This volume is a 'must read' for agriculture, food, and nutrition science and policy professionals…[a] path-breaking analysis.”
“Otero describes how the global diet that emerged at the turn of the 21st century has contributed to worldwide increases in overweight and obesity and how neoliberalism, the variant of capitalism that evolved in this period, promotes obesogenic diets.” He “makes several points that warrant the attention of food policy analysts and advocates. First, he shows how changes in global food regimes such as the growth of corporate managed food trade, the consolidation of agribusiness and food sectors into a handful of giant transnational corporations, and the industrial production of corn, soy, and sugar have created a new global diet. . . . Second, Otero makes the case that the neoliberal diet exacerbates inequities between what low-income and wealthier people eat. . . . Third, Otero coins the term “neoregulation” (pp. 39–43) to describe regulations that arise from partnerships between corporations and governments. He observes that neoliberalism not only deregulates but also shifts the focus of government oversight from protecting consumers to protecting corporations.” Fourth: “governments can play an important role in protecting populations against harmful dietary changes. . . . Finally, Otero highlights the roles of social movements in resisting neoliberalism and creating alternatives. . . . [T]he food justice movement can contribute to the idea that another world—and another diet—are in fact possible.”
Nicholas Freudenberg, Distinguished Professor of Public Health at City University of New York, Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development
“An important and well-documented work. Rejecting the notions that diet is a matter of choice and that with education, the poor would become slimmer and healthier, Otero analyzes structures that limit healthy choices for the poor, particularly in countries linked to developed countries, as Mexico is through NAFTA. He documents how this form of food insecurity is increasing with the implementation of patented genetic engineering. Without the policies that make the technology quite useful for financialization and capital accumulation, combined with laws and tax policies that favor increased concentration in agricultural-input industries and retail distributors, the food system would look very different—as would international migration streams and environmental quality.”
Cornelia Butler Flora, Charles F. Curtiss Distinguished Professor Emerita of Sociology, Iowa State University, coauthor of Rural Communities: Legacy + Change