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Communism in Mexico

[ Latin American Studies ]

Communism in Mexico

A Study in Political Frustration

By Karl M. Schmitt

This book traces efforts during the early twentieth century to create a Soviet-style society in one of the largest and most strategically situated of the Latin American countries.

1965

$25.00$16.75

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Paperback

6 x 9 | 302 pp.

ISBN: 978-0-292-72956-8

The ease with which Cuba slipped into its relationship with Communism revived in the United States its recurring nightmare in which other Latin American countries, particularly Mexico, become satellites of Russia or Red China. But such an occurrence is most unlikely in Mexico, according to Karl Schmitt, former intelligence research analyst with the United States Department of State.

Communism in Mexico traces efforts during the early twentieth century to create a Soviet-style society in one of the largest and most strategically situated of the Latin American countries. Schmitt writes authoritatively of the Mexican Communist movement, tracing its development from an early and potentially powerful political-economic base to the increasingly fragmented and weakened collection of parties and front groups of the 1960s. He follows the various schisms and factional divisions to the mid-1950s, when the process of disintegration became most noticeable, and explores and analyzes in detail Communist attempts since then to establish unity among the many quarreling and frustrated groups of the now-splintered movement.

Three Communist parties in Mexico, a score of front groups, and numerous infiltration cells in non-Communist organizations such as student and labor groups, all recognize in a broad way a common and ultimate goal: the creation of a Soviet-style society. But their attempts at unity have consistently led only to further bickering and frustration. This period is subjected to a thorough study and analysis in an effort to understand and explain the Communists' lack of success. Schmitt presciently concludes that Communism's future in Mexico will be as cloudy as its past, and that the accelerating economy and improving social conditions there will serve to weaken the movement still further.

Preface
I. The History of the Mexican Communist Movement
The Founding of the Mexican Communist Party
The First Ten Years, 1919–1929
Revolt, Suppression, and Persecution, 1929–1934
Revival and Furthest Advance, 1934–1940
Discord, Disunity, and Decline of the Communist Movement, 1940–1962
    Weaknesses In the Mexican Communist Party
    Growth of Government Hostility To Communism In Labor Organizations
    Founding of the Communist-Front People’s Party
    Founding of the Communist-Splinter Mexican Worker-Peasant Party
    Cooperation and Competition Among the Three Communist Parties
    Cárdenas and the National Liberation Movement
II. Orthodoxy and Schism in Mexican Communism
The Mexican Communist Party
    Leaders and Followers
    Organization
    Principles, Programs, and Propaganda
    Activities
The Mexican Worker-Peasant Party
    Leaders and Followers
    Organization
    Principles, Programs, and Propaganda
    Activities
The Socialist People’s Party
    Introduction
    Leaders and Followers
    Organization
    Principles, Programs, and Propaganda
    Activities
III. Communist-Front Organizations in Mexico
Introduction
The National Liberation Movement
The Mexican Peace Committee
The Mexican-Russian Institute of Cultural Exchange
The Society of Friends of the USSR
The Mexican Society of Friends with People’s China
The Mexican-Czechoslovak Institute of Cultural Exchange
The Mexican-Rumanian Friendship and Cultural Exchange Society
The Mexican-Bulgarian Friendship and Cultural Exchange Society
The Mexican-Hungarian Friendship and Cultural Exchange Institute
The Society of Friends of the People’s Republic of Poland
The Adam Mickiewicz Patronate
The Society of Friends of Guatemala
The Mexican Society of Friends of Revolutionary Guatemala
The Society of Friends of Cuba
The Mexican-Cuban Institute of Cultural Relations “José Marti,”
The Journalist Friends of Cuba
The People’s Graphic Arts Shop
The Center of Mexican Journalists
The People’s Israelite League
The National Front of Plastic Arts
The Circle of Mexican Studies
The Democratic Union of Mexican Women
The Vanguard of Mexican Women
The Confederation of Mexican Youths
The National Federation of Technical Students
IV. Organized Labor and the Communists
Introduction
Communist-infiltrated Labor Organizations
    The Railroad Workers’ Union of the Mexican Republic
    The Mining and Metallurgical Workers’ Union of the Mexican Republic
    The Mexican Confederation of Electrical Workers
    The National Teachers’ Union
Communist-controlled Labor Organizations
    The World Federation of Trade Unions
    The Confederation of Latin American Workers
    The General Union of Workers and Peasants of Mexico
    The Central Union of Ejido Societies
    The Workers’ Front
    The Workers’ University
V. The Mexican Government, the Mexican Communists, and International Communism
Introduction
The Mexican Government and the Communists
International Communism and the Mexican Movement
VI. The Failure of Mexican Communism
Postscript
Introduction
The Political Parties
    The PCM
    The PPS and the POCM
    The Electoral Front of the People
Communist-Front Organizations in Mexico
Organized Labor and the Communists
The Mexican Government and the Communists
The Mexican Communists and the International Communists
Bibliography
Index

Karl M. Schmitt is Professor Emeritus of Government at the University of Texas at Austin.