A government monopoly provides an excellent case study of state-society relationships. This is especially true of the tobacco monopoly in colonial Mexico, whose revenues in the later half of the eighteenth century were second only to the silver tithe as the most valuable source of government income. This comprehensive study of the tobacco monopoly illuminates many of the most important themes of eighteenth-century Mexican social and economic history, from issues of economic growth and the supply of agricultural credit to rural relations, labor markets, urban protest and urban workers, class formation, work discipline, and late colonial political culture.
Drawing on exhaustive research of previously unused archival sources, Susan Deans-Smith examines a wide range of new questions. Who were the bureaucrats who managed this colonial state enterprise and what policies did they adopt to develop it? How profitable were the tobacco manufactories, and how rational was their organization? What impact did the reorganization of the tobacco trade have upon those people it affected most—the tobacco planters and tobacco workers?
This research uncovers much that was not previously known about the Bourbon government's management of the tobacco monopoly and the problems and limitations it faced. Deans-Smith finds that there was as much continuity as change after the monopoly's establishment, and that the popular response was characterized by accommodation, as well as defiance and resistance. She argues that the problems experienced by the monopoly at the beginning of the nineteenth century did not originate from any simmering, entrenched opposition. Rather, an emphasis upon political stability and short-term profits prevented any innovative reforms that might have improved the monopoly's long-term performance and productivity.
With detailed quantitative data and rare material on the urban working poor of colonial Mexico, Bureaucrats, Planters, and Workers will be important reading for all students of social, economic, and labor history, especially of Mexico and Latin America.
1. Monopoly, Tobacco, and Colonial Society
2. Monopoly Bureaucrats and Monopoly Finances: An Overview, 1765–1810
3. Tobacco and Paper: The Politics and Problems of Supply
4. Merchants, Rancheros, and Peasants: The Tobacco Planters of Orizaba and Córdoba
5. Organization, Production, and Policies: The State Tobacco Manufactories, 1765–1810
6. To Serve in the King’s House: Work, Wages, and Manufactory Discipline in the Royal Tobacco Manufactories
7. Accommodation, Consensus, and Resistance: The Tobacco Manufactory Workers and the Colonial State, 1770–1810
"The scope of [this] work is impressive. It successfully undertakes nothing less than a reconstruction of a significant but largely neglected aspect of Bourbon political economy."
—Richard J. Salvucci, associate professor of economics, Trinity University
"... Deans-Smith has mined her sources with skill, imagination, doggedness and sensitivity—this last quality demonstrated notably in the chapters devoted to the tobacco factory workers of Mexico City.
—Stanley J. Stein, Carpenter Professor in Spanish Civilization and Culture, Emeritus, Princeton University
Honorable Mention, Bolton Memorial Prize, Conference on Latin American History
Herbert Eugene Bolton Prize, 1993
CONFERENCE ON LATIN AMERICAN HISTORY